Importance of X-ray inspection technology in the SMT FAI/ First Article Inspection
According to the latest statistics in 2018, 40% of SMT industry companies already have x ray inspection equipment in China. With the rapid development of electronic technology, the rise of various types of intelligent terminal equipment has become more and more demanding on the quality of circuit assembly, X Ray machine ensure long term life of the product.
SMT FAI/ First Article Inspection X-ray System-Purpose of SMT FAI/ First Article Inspection
SMT FAI/ First Article Inspection is mainly to find out the factors affecting the quality of the product in the production process as early as possible, and prevent the product from being out of tolerance, repair and scrap. It is a means to pre-control the production process of the product, and it is an important part of the quality control of the product. The method is an effective and indispensable method for enterprises to ensure product quality and improve economic efficiency. Through the SMT FAI/ First Article Inspection, systemic reasons such as BGA welding quality, measuring instrument accuracy, drawings, etc. can be found, so that corrective or improvement measures can be taken to prevent batch non-conforming products from occurring. At present，Non-destructive testing, there are many kinds of testing techniques used in the SMT processing industry. The following are commonly used SMT FAI/First Article Inspection methods: manual visual inspection, AOI inspection, ICT test, X-ray inspection, and functional test FCT. Among them, the X-RAY detection technology with internal perspective function for non-destructive testing is one of the best. It can not only detect invisible solder joints, such as BGA, CSP and other package components. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the test results, especially the SMT FAI/First Article Inspection, can be used to find out the problem early.
The characteristics of each of the above SMT FAI/First Article Inspection methods are as follows:
- Manual visual inspection is a method of inspection with the naked eye. The manual detection is unstable, the cost is high, and the detection of a large number of welded parts is not accurate.
- Automatic optical detection (AOI) is to obtain the image of the device or PCB through CCD photography, and then through the computer processing and analysis and comparison to determine defects and faults. The advantage is that the detection speed is fast, the programming time is short, and it can be placed in different positions in the production line, so that the faults and defects can be timely and the production and detection are combined into one. The disadvantage is that circuit properties cannot be detected, such as circuit errors, which are not detected for invisible solder joints.
- ICT needle bed testing is a widely used testing technique. The test speed is fast, suitable for a single variety of large-volume products, high cost of use, long production cycle, and the latest high integration of intelligent products can not be ICT test because of the inability to implant test points.
- Functional Test (FCT) can effectively find various defects and faults that occur during SMT assembly. The detection is fast, rapid, simple to use, and low in investment, but it cannot automatically diagnose the fault, and is not suitable for mass inspection. If the circuit board is short-circuited and the FCT test is not checked in advance, there is a risk of burning the board.
- Significant features of X-Ray detection technology: According to the understanding of various detection technologies and equipment, X-RAY detection technology has more advantages than the above several detection technologies. It can improve our inspection system. For us to improve the “one-time pass rate” and strive for the goal of “zero defects”, provide an effective means of detection.
In particular, SMT FAI/First Article Inspection can detect the factors affecting product quality in the production process as early as possible, and prevent batch defects or scrapping.
- Coverage of process defects is as high as 97% or more. Inspectable defects include: solder joints, bridging, insufficient solder, air bubbles, device missing, and so on. In particular, X-RAY hides devices for solder joints such as BGA and CSP.
- Higher test coverage. It can be inspected where the naked eye and online tests are not available. For example, if PCBA is judged to be faulty, it is suspected that the PCB inner layer is broken, and X-RAY can be checked quickly.
- The preparation time for testing is greatly shortened.
- It is possible to observe defects that cannot be reliably detected by other test methods, such as: virtual welding, air holes, and poor molding.
- It is only necessary to check the double-panel and multi-layer boards once (with layering function).
- Based on SMT FAI/First Article Inspection of measurement information, used to evaluate the production process. Such as solder paste thickness, solder amount under solder joints, BGA placement position, reflow soldering process conditions, etc.
SMT FAI/ First Article Inspection X-ray System
X-RAY inspection technology brings new changes to SMT production, let us understand the principle of X-ray detection: All X-RAY inspection equipment, whether it is 2D two-dimensional or 3D three-dimensional system principle is X-ray projection microscope basically. The X-ray tube generates X-rays through a test sample (for example, PCB), and produces a projection on the image receiver according to the difference in density and atomic weight of the sample material to the X-ray, and the higher the density, the darker the shadow. The closer the X-ray tube is to the shadow, the smaller the shadow is, which is the principle of geometric magnification.
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